• 1 (7- to 8-pound) bone-in, skin-on pork shoulder roast, or a 6- to 7-pound boneless roast, fat trimmed to 1/4-inch thickness
• 1/4 cup chopped fennel fronds
• 1/4 cup chopped fresh rosemary
• 2 teaspoons chopped fresh sage leaves
• 5 garlic cloves, grated or mashed to a paste
• Finely grated zest of 1 lemon
• 1 1/2 tablespoons kosher salt
• 1 teaspoon fennel seed
• 3/4 teaspoon red pepper flakes
• 1/2 teaspoon black pepper
• 1/4 cup extra-virgin olive oil
1. Score skin and fat all over pork, taking care not to cut down to the meat.
2. In a food processor or mortar and pestle, combine fennel fronds, rosemary, sage, garlic, lemon zest, salt, fennel seed, red pepper flakes and black pepper. Pour in oil. Pulse or mash until it forms a paste. Rub all over pork. If using a boneless roast, tie with kitchen string at 2-inch intervals. Transfer to a large bowl and cover with plastic wrap. Refrigerate at least 6 hours and preferably overnight.
3. Remove pork from refrigerator 1 to 2 hours before you want to cook it. Heat oven to 450 degrees. Transfer pork to a rimmed baking sheet and roast 35 minutes. Reduce temperature to 325 degrees and cook an additional 2 hours 45 minutes to 4 hours, until a thermometer inserted into the thickest part of the meat reads 180 degrees, which will give you sliceable, tender meat. (Bone-in roasts will take longer than boneless ones.)
4. Transfer pork to a cutting board and let rest 15 to 30 minutes before serving. Make sure everyone gets some of the cracklings.